Are there fundamental differences between elementary particles?

Some ignore the neighbors, others interact with everyone

Firstly, a large group is distinguished among the particles, which is called leptons. The leptons interact very weakly with other particles. This applies particularly to the lightest lepton neutrino that, unlike others, has no electric charge. Neutrinos can pass through the Earth without “seeing” of its constituent particles. Secondly, the internal angular momentum inherent in each of particles, called spin, which can be either a half-integer or an integer in units of the Planck’s constant, divides them into two large groups called fermions and bosons, respectively. Fermions and bosons behave differently not only when scattered as single particles but also being in the state of gas where fermions, unlike bosons, can not have the same speed and, at the same time, coordinates. This is a manifestation of the so-called Pauli exclusion principle, which leads to completely different properties of fermionic and bosonic gases at low temperatures and high concentrations.

The difference between fermions and bosons

The pressure of fermionic gas prevents gravitational compression of white dwarfs and neutron stars.


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