How to create a neutrino beam?

About the countless muon neutrinos flying in a beam…

The discovery of partons in nucleons and intermediate bosons involved in weak interactions has been made owing to the fact that at experimenters’ disposal in the 60s, there were high-energy beams of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos generated by means of proton accelerators. If one directs a proton beam to a target, among other things, charged pions and kaons are being born. Then one can sort them by energy and allow them to fly freely until most of them decay into a muon/antimuon plus antineutrino/neutrino. The resulting muons are cut off by either an iron or ground shield, while neutrinos continue to fly to the venue of the experiment — the detector. In such a beam, all neutrinos are of similar energy. Alternatively, the pions and kaons — of different energy — instead of being sorted, can be put together by a magnetic field produced by a current of 100,000 amps. This gives a beam of neutrinos with energy in a wide range, but of much higher intensity.

Magnetic horn narrowing beam of muon neutrinos.

This magnetic horn was used in the process of producing a narrow beam of neutrinos.


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